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Desert Storm, a day by day history

СообщениеДобавлено: 17.12.2007 17:03
Обзор создан для показа динамики войны.

"Congratulations on your superb combat performance...
You met every requirement of our mission and accomplished everything expected of you by the nation, the Army and the Corps. Few units could have done what you did; nobody could have done it better."
L.D. Holder
65th Colonel of the Regiment
1 March 1991


When Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq, directed his forces to invade Kuwait no one could have predicted the eventual involvement of the 2d ACR. The Regiment was in fact in gunnery at Grafenwoehr on the 2nd of August 1990, the date of the invasion. Speculation about a mission in the Gulf occurred, but no one really expected that the Regiment would actually deploy....

Speculation continued as the American involvement in Southwest Asia grew. The decision to deploy VII Corps apparently came after diplomatic efforts, to include U.N. directed economic sanctions, failed to dislodge the Iraqis from Kuwait. The President's announcement that he was sending additional troops and that these troops would center around the VII Corps was not entirely a surprise, although the exact timing did surprise many ... there was no advance warning of the President's announcement on national television on 8 November 1990.

The Regiment began intensive movement planning the next day. Corps' initial instruction to move no earlier than 20 November turned into "begin movement tomorrow". The Regiment's tracked vehicles and many of the wheeled vehicles were rail loaded from five different sites to the north German port of Bremerhaven on short notice. The Regimental Support Squadron (RSS) coordinated for operations at Bremerhaven, starting before a Support Command base was established and assuring unit integrity in shipping in spite of considerable difficulties. Work slowdowns, rail strikes, bad weather, and changing guidance complicated the move. RSS fabricated rail tie down gear as trains loaded, to cover theater shortages.

The Dragoons first flights left from Nuernberg and Rhein-Main AFB on 3 December. The Regiment finished deployment by mid-December, arriving in Saudi Arabia through Dhahran Air Base, King Fahd International Airport, and Al Jubail Naval Air Station.

The Regiment's initial home was the ISA set up outside Al Jubail while its equipment was unloaded at Jubail port. The Second Squadron led the Regiment out of the port area on 18 December, occupying TAA Seminole (named after the Regiment's first campaign in 1836) and followed shortly by 3/2, 1/2, 4/2 and RSS. Escaping the crowded conditions of the ISA improved morale considerably.

The Regiment made its home in TAA Seminole for the next month. Here the Regiment acclimated to the desert environment, a totally new experience, and concentrated on training. Battle drills, gunnery, and maneuvering from the platoon to squadron level, as well as CPX's at the Regimental level, developed desert fighting skills. Transition from European practices proved to be unexpectedly easy. The Regiment spent Christmas and New Years at TAA Seminole, eating two fabulous holiday meals. It was also here that the Dragoon Battle Group began to take shape with the addition of the 210th Field Artillery Brigade, 82d Engineer Battalion, 214th MP Company, 172d Chemical Company, 178th Personnel Services Company, and several Corps intelligence units. With these additional assets the Dragoon Battle Group amounted to over 8,000 troops.

Operation Desert Shield became "Desert Storm" at 0300 hrs, 17 January, when coalition air forces began the air campaign against the Iraqi forces. The Regiment's training became increasingly purposeful with the onset of war. Additionally, the Regiment replaced its M3 Scout Bradleys while at Seminole with more heavily armored M2A2s "Brads". That swap made a big difference in scout effectiveness once the shooting started.

In late January, the Regiment moved to a new forward assembly area, FAA Richardson, located southwest of the city of Hafar Al Batin. The Regiment completed its final preparations in Richardson. These included a Regimental CFX, a war game of the final plan, and combined arms rehearsals for the breaching of the border obstacle. The Regiment moved forward into an attack position, FAA Utah, on 17 February to cover the Corps armored divisions as they formed for their "G-Day" (Ground Offensive Day) attacks. On 21 February, Corps confirmed that G-Day would be 24 February. Second Cavalry's mission was to cover the extensive flank of VII (US) Corps as it occupies FAA Utah and, on G-Day, H-Hour, to attack through the western flank of enemy defenses and to conduct offensive cover operations in order to develop the situation for VII Corps. The Regiment would start one day ahead of the rest of VII Corps to assure easy passage of the border obstacles.

The concept called for a fast advance oriented on the Republican Guards forces located 120 kilometers to the northeast. The Regiment was to scout forward with air cavalry, pound enemy positions with close air support as soon as they were found, and follow-up with an aggressive ground attack supported with rocket and Howitzer artillery fire as well as electronic warfare. At night, artillery fires and AH-64 Apache attack helicopters of 2-1 Aviation Battalion (OPCON) would keep pressure on the Iraqis. Second Cavalry covered the attacks of two armored divisions initially. As the situation clarified, Lieutenant General Franks, VII Corps Commander, would commit divisions through or around 2d ACR to destroy the heavy divisions of the Republican Guard


СообщениеДобавлено: 17.12.2007 17:04
G-1, Saturday, 23 February 1991

After maintaining radio silence throughout the covering operation, Regimental nets opened at 1310 hours. This was the start of operations, the first wartime or combat operation conducted by the Regiment since May 1945. At 1330 the 210th FA Brigade fired a nine-minute artillery prep with two 155 battalions, an MLRS battery and the Regiment's howitzer batteries....

The prep covered the breaching of a double berm between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. This berm, erected to discourage smugglers, stood 8-10 feet high. 82nd Engineer Battalion, OPCON to the Dragoons and reinforced by the Regiment's own 84th Engineer Company, cut 43 lanes through the berm to allow passage of the follow-on squadrons and the Corps main body of two divisions.

While the Engineers completed these lanes, the Regiment crossed the berm line, called PL BECKS, with 4/2 leading in an aerial screen, followed by two squadrons abreast, Second in the west and Third in the east. First Squadron followed 3/2 as the Regimental reserve and RSS followed 2/2. Fourth Squadron cleared the zone with Nomad and Palehorse Troops as far as PL BUD by 1350 hrs. Eagle Troop breached the berm by 1400 hrs and Lightning Troop by 1406 hrs. Ground squadrons were on PL BUD, the limit of advance for the day, by 1530 hrs with Fourth Squadron screening ten kilometers further north on PL BUSCH. No one reported contact.

СообщениеДобавлено: 17.12.2007 17:06
G-Day, Sunday, 24 February 1991

The original plan for this day called for the Regiment to rake a Limited advance to PL BUSCH and hold there until G+1, while Marines and allied forces attacked into Kuwait. As coalition forces attacked across the front, however, resistance began folding and Iraqi forces surrendered in large numbers....

The success of coalition attacks accelerated the Corps schedule. With Second and Third Squadrons along PL BUSCH, Corps ordered the attack to continue at 1430 hours. Thus began an exciting afternoon as the Regiment moved over 40 kilometers, taking hundreds of prisoners.

In the course of the advance Fourth and Third Squadron received some small arms fire. Lightning Troop, in fact, fought nine fire-fights guarding the Regimental flank during the day and into the evening. Fox Troop exchanged fire with an enemy platoon and then accepted its surrender. Generally, there was little resistance.

By early evening, lead scouts of the Regiment had reached Objectives MERRELL and FEUCHT with the maim bodies of the lead squadrons generally along PL DIXIE. First Squadron deployed to cover the Regiment's exposed right flank. Close air support on Objectives MERRELL and FEUCHT prompted the surrender of hundreds of prisoners throughout the night. First Platoon of Fox Troop reported taking a battalion's worth of prisoners. Second Squadron also captured an Iraqi lieutenant colonel, the Assistant Division Artillery Commander from 261D, who provided significant intelligence.

EPWs became a problem as they overwhelmed squadrons' holding capacities. Attached EPW teams from 214th MP Company (Alabama ARNG, attached to the Regiment) were kept busy all night consolidating and interrogating them. Squadrons continued to engage targets with mortars and artillery. 2-1 Aviation (Apache attack helicopters OPCON from 1AD) attacked across the FLOT at 0130 hrs and engaged troops, bunkers, and buildings.

Third ACR on the left (west) matched our advance while 1st ID penetrated enemy obstacles and defenses on our right. During the night the 1AD and 3AD moved up to assume a 12 to 15 kilometer interval behind the Regiment's rear elements.

G+1, Monday, 25 February 1991

СообщениеДобавлено: 17.12.2007 17:06
G+1, Monday, 25 February 1991

This was a gray, windy day. At 0640 hrs, the Regiment continued its ground and air attack. Everyone continued to take prisoners as Iraqi soldiers gave up with no resistance. Air scouts reported that Objective GATES was free of enemy --but that Objective MAY contained enemy positions. Third Squadron fired artillery on MAY but blowing sand hampered close air support. The Third Armored Division continued to follow closely while First Armored Division trailed to the northwest in its own zone and First Infantry Division completed clearing passage lanes through the penetration area.

The Regiment refueled at 1000 hrs in the vicinity of PL LONESTAR while scouts continued forward. By 1230, the lead squadrons reported their main bodies on PL SMASH and their scouts as far as PL BLACKTOP. On BLACKTOP, 3/2 met and destroyed a mechanized infantry unit in prepared positions, taking a large number of EPWs including a colonel and lieutenant colonel. They also captured an enemy command vehicle complete with maps and plans. Further west, Ghost Troop destroyed an enemy recon element equipped with MT-LBs. The cross desert convoy was complicated, however, when Support Squadron stuck most of its supporting ammo trucks in soft sand.

It also became apparent that the enemy would fight. Enemy armored units with T-72 tanks were reported near Objective MAY indicating the presence of Republican Guards units, the objective of the VII Corps attack. The rapid advance of the Regiment drew in hundreds of EPWs and Support Squadron with the 214 MP Company struggled manfully to evacuate them as the squadrons prepared for further contact. Most prisoners flew out by CH-47 shuttles over the next few days. Many EPWs taken this night and the next day were evacuated by air but of a different sort-- "medevacs" 11 out of Med Troop Base.

Colonel Holder, the Regimental Commander, ordered a hasty defense of PL RT BLACKTOP and met squadron commanders at the RTOC at 1600 hrs. LTG Franks, the Corps-Commander, arrived unexpectedly and joined this meeting. He directed the Regiment to fix the enemy along PL BLACKTOP and to be prepared to pass an additional division through to the east on the following day.

The squadron orientations at this point were as follows: 2/2 on the left, facing generally north; 3/2 in the center, facing northeast; and 1/2 on the right, oriented east and southeast to guard the Regiment's flank. First Squadron also tied-in with 1st British Armored Division as it moved northeast through 1st ID's penetration.

The Regiment's position interdicted an enemy supply route and all the squadrons had sporadic contact that night and into the early morning hours. The 210 FA Brigade ran artillery raids that night as 2-1 Aviation planned deep attacks to fix the enemy in depth. Fights broke out all along the Regimental front as Iraqi forces attempted to move along the road and reacted to artillery raids. A stiff contact erupted at 0205 when an Iraqi company ran into Eagle and Mad Dog and got pounded for their trouble. Each engagement brought in scores of new prisoners.

At 0330 hrs, a Corps FRAGO changed the Regiment's orientation to due east in order to fix the Tawakalna Division while the two US armored divisions pivoted around to the Dragoons, north. The APCER2 mission to Jayhawk was simple and straightforward: Destroy the Iraqi Republican Guards by 27 February. The Dragoon Battle Group was to hold the Republican Guard's "nose" so that the rest of the Jayhawk Corps could "kick them in the ass."

G+2, Tuesday, 26 February 1991

СообщениеДобавлено: 17.12.2007 17:07
G+2, Tuesday, 26 February 1991

Monday had been wet and chilly. On Tuesday the weather dried out about mid-morning only to be replaced by high winds and a Shamal (dust storm) that obscured the battlefield for the Iraqis but not for the Regiment's thermal sights and laser range-finders....

The Regiment, now moving due east, advanced to the 60 Easting line with three squadrons abreast: First Squadron picked up a zone in the south, Third Squadron now moved in the Regimental center. A tank fight developed along the front as 2/2 and 3/2 fixed and destroyed T72's which turned out to be security forces of the Tawakalna Division of the Republican Guard. First Squadron met and fought elements of the enemy 12th Armored Division at about the same time. Other Iraqi forces fleeing north out of the 1AD (UK) zone crossed into First Squadron's path and were also destroyed.

The Regiment reported that it had reached the enemy's main defense and got orders to reconoiter forward to the 70 north-south line. The Corps Commander also directed the Regiment to be prepared to pass the First Infantry Division through its cover later in the afternoon to continue the attack to the East. Low visibility characterized the development of the Battle on the 73 Easting. With 3d Armored Division moving up on the Regimental right (north) and 1st Infantry Division marching up from the penetration area, the Regiment reconned forward in blowing sand. Weather prevented 4/2 and CAS from playing a prominent role early; in fact, Eagle Troop made hard contact with an enemy mechanized company with no warning from air scouts.

As weather improved, however, attack helicopters and Air Force CAS joined a widening fight. Eagle, Ghost, Iron, Killer, Bull and Apache all made contact with the Tawalkana’s defenses as they reached the 70 Easting around 1400. Meanwhile the Air Force ran CAS missions ten kilometers to the Regiment's front but also brought their fires to within three kilometers of friendly positions. BDA showed a high number of kills on tanks, artillery, and other armored vehicles. Altogether, the 26th was a very successful day for the Dragoon Battle Group and the Air Force; The M1A1 Abrams main battle tank proved itself superbly in the action. Iron Troop, led by CPT Miller, accounted for 16 Iraqi tanks. Some gunners reported being able to engage successfully at long ranges, and Iraqi EPWs later confirmed the Regiment's gunnery skills. The Iraqis reported they could hear our tanks but couldn't see them or know they were under fire until the turret of the T-72 next to them was blown off by a 120mm "Super Sabot" round.

Indirect fire also played an important role during these battles. The 6-41 FA with OPCON of 2d Howitzer Battery, fired over 2,000 rounds. This fire destroyed or stopped retreating Iraqi forces and destroyed a logistics site beyond the reach of direct fire weapons. The Battle on the 73 Easting ran through the afternoon and into the night. Coordination for passage of the 1st Infantry Division occurred simultaneously. When the division passed, beginning at 2200, the battle had subsided. But burning enemy vehicles lit the area east of the squadrons. A battalion commander of the Big Red One later gave a vivid account of moving past a grimy, fired-up cavalry scout who gave him an excited, accurate, and somewhat obscene report of the shattered enemy to his front.

The Support Squadron followed the movement throughout the day and ran into a little late excitement of its own. This came in the form of a bypassed enemy element (10 MT-LBs) which ran into the RSS flank. Major Moreau maneuvered MPs and the ORF platoon of M1s against the threat as Dragoon 6 ordered Redcatcher's Cobras and Scouts to the rescue. The Support Squadron broke contact as Quickstrike Troop arrived, but not before killing several MT-LBs. The ORF platoon of MIAls, led by 2LT Kirkland gave an especially good account of itself during this action, given that it had been formed only ten days earlier.

The 1st Infantry Division completed its passage at 0200 hours and continued the attack to the east. Upon completion of the passage, 210th Brigade became direct support to Danger and the Regiment became the Corps reserve.

СообщениеДобавлено: 17.12.2007 17:08
G+3, Wednesday, 27 February 1991

The weather continued to be dreadful but was less of a factor for the Regiment as it continued its reserve role and the divisions carried the fight to the enemy. A small move to the east, to the 85 Easting, was made in the afternoon to keep the Regiment closed up to 1ID's rear boundary. The Cease Fire found the Dragoons preparing to follow the rest of the Corps into Kuwait. All told, the Second Armored Regiment fought 82 hours of a 115 hour war.


по материалам http://history.dragoons.org

СообщениеДобавлено: 17.01.2008 18:51
El Jiraffo
17 лет назад, 17 января 1991 года, началась операция "Буря в пустыне".

СообщениеДобавлено: 17.01.2008 19:34

СообщениеДобавлено: 02.06.2008 19:19
http://www.russiantext.com/russian_libr ... siann.html
наткнулся на очередную статью, на этот раз на русском