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Сообщение Bender » 13.11.2007 17:21

Chemical Protective Equipment (CPE) Components

The key parts of CPE include:
Overgarment. US forces in the Gulf War had several models of overgarment. (If exposed to contamination, the wearer discarded and replaced overgarments. They were not decontaminated or recycled. Troops normally wore the overgarment over the field uniform, but it could be worn over only underwear to reduce heat buildup.)
The Battledress Overgarment (BDO) consisted of a coat and trousers in olive drab or camouflage pattern. The BDO has an outer cotton layer and an inner layer of charcoal impregnated polyurethane foam. It is permeable, permitting some air to filter in and out—thereby reducing heat buildup, while absorbing and trapping any chemical agents coming in contact with the BDO.
Many troops in Operation Desert Shield deployed with the Chemical Protective Overgarment (CPOG), similar in construction to the BDO, but older in design. It is solid olive drab with an outer layer of nylon cotton and charcoal impregnated foam inside.
Army aircrews wore the Aircrew Uniform Integrated Battlefield (AUIB) instead of a normal flight suit or the BDO/CPOG. It protects against both chemical hazards and fire and includes features specialized for use in the cockpit.
Marines had four different chemical protective suits: the Marine Corps Standard Protective Overgarment (OG84), the Navy Lightweight Suit (MKIII), the Aviators Chemical Ensemble, and the British Lightweight Suit (MK IV).
Air Force aircrews also wore the British Mark IV Lightweight Suit (MK IV).
Chemical Protective Helmet Cover. This cover protects against chemical and biological contamination and is made from butyl-coated nylon cloth. It has an elastic web in the hem to gather the cover and hold it on the helmet.[9]
Vinyl Overboot. Worn over combat boots, the impermeable overboot protects against chemical, radiological, and biological hazards as well as rain, mud, or snow. If contaminated, decontamination can return them to service.
Protective Masks. Several models of protective masks were used by the US military in the Gulf War. All the masks protect the face and airways from airborne contamination by all known chemical or biological agents and radioactive dust. In the Gulf War, most US troops in dismounted ground operations had the M17 Series Protective Mask. Some troops had the newly fielded M40 Protective Mask. Both masks have similar basic functions and levels of protection, but the M40 is more comfortable, with improved convenience and voice transmission. They both include a binocular lens system, elastic head harness, voicemitters, and filters to trap NBC contaminants. The M17 Series is made of butyl rubber while the M40 facepiece is made of silicone with a second skin which is made of butyl rubber. Masks that could be connected to vehicle air filtration systems were issued to tank crews (M25) and aircrews (M24).The Air Force ground personnel used the M17 Series Masks or the MCU-2/P series masks. The MCU-2/P is similar to the M40 except that it has a single large eye lens instead of two.
Field Protective Hood. The hood attaches to and is donned with the mask. It protects the head and neck from chemical agents and other NBC hazards.
Chemical Protective Glove Set. The glove set includes outer gloves made of impermeable butyl rubber and inner gloves made of thin cotton to absorb moisture. The outer gloves come in three thicknesses:
The 7 mil gloves are used by medical personnel, teletype operators, electronic repair personnel, etc., who need high touch sensitivity and who normally will not expose the gloves to harsh treatment.
The 14 mil gloves are used by aviators, vehicle mechanics, and weapon crews needing some touch sensitivity but who also are unlikely to give the gloves harsh treatment.
The 25 mil gloves are used by troops who perform close combat tasks and other heavy labor.
Auxiliary Equipment. Skin decontamination kits, antidote kits, and M8/M9 chemical agent detector paper also accompany the protective clothing as auxiliary equipment.

B. How CPE Protects Against Chemical Weapons (CW)

Before discussing how CPE is used in the field, it is useful to understand the types of chemical weapons it protects against and how. Chemical warfare agents may be delivered in various forms, including gas, liquid, or aerosol. They can be non-persistent (lasting for only minutes) or persistent (remaining effective for weeks). Chemical agent clouds can cover large areas and drift into foxholes, hatches, and bunkers to cause casualties.

The special filters in the protective masks absorb airborne agents and protect the lungs and eyes. The other components of CPE protect against agent contact with the skin—regardless of whether it comes in solid, liquid, or vapor form. The overboots and butyl rubber gloves are impermeable and provide a solid barrier to liquid agents. A solid barrier for the rest of the body is not practical for most combat functions because it would cause the rapid buildup of body heat and moisture. Overgarments and hoods permit some passage of air and moisture through two layers, allowing perspiration to evaporate. The outer layer limits liquid absorption or redistributes it to reduce concentration. An inner layer filters the air and any vapor that penetrates the outer layer. This inner layer of charcoal-impregnated foam acts like the filter in the protective mask. Charcoal is highly porous and able to absorb liquid, gas, and aerosol agents. If mask filters or permeable protective garments become exposed to a chemical agent, they are discarded (and properly disposed of) after wear and then replaced, in accordance with each service’s doctrine. For example, the Air Force chooses to air out vapor-contaminated CPE in a toxic free area, and then reuse them. Impermeable gloves and overboots can be decontaminated and recycled for use.

Troops potentially exposed to high concentrations of chemical warfare agents (e.g., decontamination crews) receive special impermeable overgarments.


While in buildings and vehicles that offer some protection against liquid agents, troops may operate in a modified MOPP posture to protect against vapor threats. Some vehicles (such as the M1A1 Abrams Tank) have air pumped in through filters (overpressure systems), permitting a mask-free operation in contaminated terrain.Troops assume the MOPP level set by the commander when they exit these special environments.

To maintain effectiveness in MOPP Levels 3 or 4, commanders can declare "MOPP Open." This permits troops to open the jacket and roll up the hood to improve ventilation for a limited period of time based on estimates of the chemical threat.

D. Donning Time for CPE

As troops put on more protective clothing and equipment, and the MOPP level continues to increase, the time required to achieve the higher levels of protection decreases. For example, increasing the MOPP level from MOPP Level 0 to MOPP Level 1 cuts the incremental time to go to MOPP-4 in half (from eight to four minutes). Increasing the MOPP level from MOPP-1 to MOPP-2 cuts the time to go to MOPP-4 from four minutes to under a minute. Figure 3 shows the amount of time necessary to attain MOPP-4 from each lower MOPP Level.

CPE components are rated for how long they provide full protection in both contaminated and non-contaminated environments. For example, in a contaminated environment, the Chemical Protective Overgarment (CPOG) is rated for up to six hours of protection and the Battledress Overgarment (BDO) for 24 hours. Overgarments actually exposed to chemical warfare agents are never worn again.

In a non-contaminated environment, the CPOG gradually begins to lose protection after 14 days of almost full time wear, while the BDO can last 30 days. Returning the garments to their vapor-seal bags "stops the clock" on these wear periods. The bag protects the overgarment from the degrading effects of such things as moisture, smoke, fuel solvent vapors, and sunlight. Over time, extensively worn overgarments can also become unserviceable because the charcoal migrates to the end of the sleeves and trousers, or the knees and elbows wear out, or the garment is exposed to too much mud and dirt.[Because of the limited availability in the Gulf of replacement CPE, commands were flexible about wear time in a non-contaminated environment under CW threat. It was decided that wearing an overgarment beyond the established full protection limits would put troops at less risk than being exposed to chemical warfare agents without sufficient replacement protective gear.

B. Performance Degradation Caused by CPE Wear

Depending on the outside temperature and the physical level of work, MOPP postures above Level 0 can result in the following individual performance limitations:
Speech and communications problems
Impaired hearing
Reduced vision (acuity, field of view, depth perception)
Difficulty recognizing individuals in MOPP
Heat injuries
Inadequate nutrition
Combat stress
Mood swings and claustrophobia
Impaired thinking and judgment

In recent years, the impacts of these kinds of effects (at MOPP Level 4) on combat operations have been studied extensively in Army field exercises. The following is a compendium of observations taken from reports on these studies:
In a variety of tasks, degradation is 20 to 50 percent.
Oxygen consumption increases about 10 percent in full CPE compared to light clothes. This indicates that personnel in MOPP-4 expend more energy than personnel in MOPP-0 performing the same tasks.
Reduced sensory awareness makes it harder to stay awake when tired.
Soldiers require 1.5 to 3 times longer to perform tasks requiring manual dexterity in MOPP-4 than without CPE.
Performing a task for the first time takes about 30 percent longer.
Troops tend to omit or poorly complete certain tasks (such as camouflage and support activities).
Some cognitive tasks, like encoding, suffer a performance loss of nearly 23 percent in MOPP-4.
Leader performance declines: they become exhausted, sleep less, become disoriented or lost, get irritable, and delegate less. Leaders often are the first MOPP casualties.
Unit movement formations bunch up to help leaders maintain control.
When platoon leaders become casualties, it takes four times as long for a platoon to realize it is leaderless. The next senior soldier assumes command 85% less often than in non-CPE exercises.
NBC Overboots provide poor footing on hilly terrain, on loose ground, or in rain.
NBC garments absorb rain and become very heavy and cumbersome.
Rifle marksmanship drops about 15 to 19 percent for soldiers in MOPP-4.
Individual weapon firing rates decrease 20 percent in the defense and 40 percent in the attack. It takes twice as long to complete an attack, and nearly twice as many soldiers are required for success.
The proportion of enemy personnel engaged decreases by one-third.
Weapon crews use terrain much less effectively for cover and concealment, and the number of casualties suffered per enemy defender killed increases by 75 percent.
Shots fired at friendly instead of enemy soldiers increases from 5 to almost 20 percent.
Platoons call for three times more indirect fire (e.g., artillery). Indirect fire becomes more effective than individual weapons in inflicting casualties on the enemy.
Land navigation is seriously degraded, particularly at night.
Night vision devices cannot be used while masked.
Radio communication is difficult because of reduced clarity and volume. Speaking through the voicemitter makes the speaker sound brassy and muffled, and consonants become indistinct. The hood and background noise (breathing, garment movement, etc.) degrades hearing.
Communications are only about half as effective as in a non-CPE environment. Total time spent on radio traffic more than doubles. The number and length of radio transmissions rises by 50 percent.[61]
Logistics operations take longer and can become confused.[62]
Maintenance takes longer. Recovering armored vehicles takes up to 20 percent more time; repairing weapons takes up to 70 percent more time.

Training for key combat tasks in CPE can reduce such performance degradation.

C. MOPP Level Analysis

Depending on the tactical situation, commanders choose the appropriate MOPP level. Before making a decision, the commander must address the following issues:
Nature of the mission (offensive or defensive)
Likelihood of CW use and what agents might be used
Likely friendly targets
Expected warning time
Additional available protection (shelter or cover)
Physical demands of the projected work
Mental demands of the projected work
Speed required for mission accomplishment
Expected duration of the mission
Likely follow-on mission
Whether adequate water and food supplies are available

Commanders must also consider other factors when setting the MOPP level. For example, the most likely time for a chemical attack is between late evening and early morning, when agent vapor tends to linger close to the ground. In the heat of the day, agents rise rapidly in unstable air.

D. Commander’s Guidance

Commanders should use MOPP flexibly to protect their forces in a potential or actual Chemical Warfare situation. While the various headquarters provide initial directives on MOPP level, subordinate units often adapt this guidance to local conditions when warranted (although a commander generally sets a minimum MOPP level). Units can increase the MOPP level set by higher headquarters in response to direct threats.

Because Gulf War commanders often had to use their own judgment in setting MOPP levels, different units experienced different degrees of CPE wear under similar circumstances. For example, after the first 24 hours of the ground war, the commander of the 2d Marine Division had his forces take off their CPE. In the adjacent 1st Marine Division sector, Marines continued to wear some of their CPE throughout the ground offensive.

E. Reducing MOPP Level and Unmasking

Commanders downgrade the MOPP level as the threat decreases. Before a unit unmasks in a potential chemical threat area, the unit’s chemical detection equipment must determine if a chemical hazard exists. If such tests are negative, the next step is "selective unmasking." Figure 4 diagrams the process.


Figure 4. Selective Unmasking Process

The M256 kit is the most sensitive vapor detection gear. If a unit must use a less sensitive test for an initial contamination check, full unit unmasking requires at least two limited unmaskings to confirm no contamination. First, one or two designated troops hold their breath, unmask for 15 seconds with their eyes open, and then remask. Others then observe their eyes for contraction of the pupils (miosis), the first sign of exposure to nerve agent vapor. If those who unmasked show no symptoms, they remove their masks and breathe normally for five minutes and remask while being observed for symptoms. If no symptoms appear, an all clear is sounded and the remaining troops of the unit unmask. When the sensitive M256 kit confirms no contamination, the procedure skips the first step involving eye exposure without breathing. All selective unmasking involves careful observation of the designated troops and immediate readiness to administer antidotes in response to any sign of toxic reaction.

Procedures established for some Army units in the Gulf included an extra selective unmasking step after unmasking for 15 seconds without breathing. This step, used where no detection equipment was available, involved unmasking and taking two or three breaths and remasking for an additional 10 minutes of observation. If no symptoms appeared, the same soldiers unmasked for five minutes.

F. Automatic Masking

In addition to establishing the MOPP Level, commanders set the guidance for automatic masking. Automatic masking means that no matter what the command-established MOPP Level, military personnel are expected to rapidly don masks if there is an immediate threat. For example, automatic masking could occur under any of the following conditions:
An automatic chemical agent alarm sounds.
A chemical agent detector paper reads positive.
Troops experience symptoms of a chemical agent exposure.

G. Threat Level Color Codes

Some US Air Force and Marine units in Operation Desert Storm used color codes to supplement MOPP levels. These codes generally referred to the immediacy of the chemical threat. The Marines’ system included the following:
"White." Enemy forces have the capability to employ NBC weapons, but attack is not probable at this time.
"Yellow." Attack probable, units maintain MOPP-0.
"Red." Siren sounds. Attack is imminent. Units go to MOPP-4.
"Black." Siren sounds. Friendly forces nearby have been attacked with CW. Units remain in MOPP-4 until "all clear" is given.

The Air Force had a similar system, with stages defined differently:
"All Clear." Normal Operations. Have Chemical Protective Equipment (CPE) and field gear readily available.
"Alert Yellow." Attack is probable. Wear CPE and field gear as directed.
"Alert Red." Attack is imminent or in progress. Don protective equipment (to include field gear) and take cover.
"Alert Black." NBC contamination is suspected or actual. Wear full chemical protective ensemble and field gear.

An Air Force daily log for Al Kharj Air Force Base, Saudi Arabia included this entry for January 21,1991:

"At 2200 hours the air base went on a Red Alert, MOP[P] Level IV. Personnel were warned to take cover but the alert was called off after a short period of time. Al Kharj Air Base was then put on a Yellow Alert, MOP[P] Level II which meant that people, for the second time in three nights, had to sleep in their chemical warfare gear."

In late January, after SCUD missile attacks failed to include chemical warheads (and a need to conserve scarce overgarments became clear), the Air Force instituted MOPP Level ALPHA. This involved taking cover in a hallway or bunker, donning the mask, hood, and gloves, and ensuring full body coverage with long pants and long-sleeved shirts; no NBC overgarments were donned. If an attack actually ensued, ALARM BLACK MOPP ALPHA was to be declared. The overgarments, however, were to be left packed and at hand unless a chemical agent was actually detected. In that event, ALARM BLACK MOPP 4 would be issued and the overgarments would be donned.

Despite these variations, the standard MOPP level system was the primary way of tying protection level to chemical agent threat for the majority of US forces during the Gulf War.

продолжение следует.
* While you are reading this- your enemy is training
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El Jiraffo
El Jiraffo

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Сообщение El Jiraffo » 13.11.2007 17:34

"Бомжи" из 1-й Пехотной. 1991 год.

Кто оденет маскхалат капрала Папича?...
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El Jiraffo
El Jiraffo

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Сообщение El Jiraffo » 18.01.2008 13:54

The current individual protective suits (OG-84) used by the
Marine Corps are bulky and extremely heavy. When carried in
the ALICE pack medium, standard issue, with associated rubber
boots and gloves, there is little additional room in the pack
for other equipment. If carried on the outside of the pack,
there is a fear of ripping the moisture barrier bag that
protects the suit. When carried in a large ALICE pack or
rucksack, because of added room, the OG-84, boots and gloves,
along with the other equipment required to be carried by the
infantryman, often pushed the weight of a pack to in excess of
100 pounds. This "Combat Load" did and will continue to limit
the mobility of the infantryman.
Several after-action reports have stated that Marines in
Southwest Asia (SWA) when given a choice between the OG-84 and
the British Mark IV NBC suit, ultimately chose the OG-84 for
its durability. In contradiction, the Mark IV suits were
actually very popular and in great demand. The Mark IV is
extremely light and is vacuum packed in two bags of tough
clear plastic. Because of its small size, it fits into the
outside pockets of the ALICE pack along with all of its
associated rubber gear. The Mark IV suit significantly reduced
the overall weight carried by infantrymen and provided
additional space in the pack for other equipment.

Кто оденет маскхалат капрала Папича?...
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Сообщение Матросов » 04.01.2013 01:21

Вот если бы с переводом, цены на матрасы (http://matrasovsk.ru) бы тебе не было, честное слово!
Последний раз редактировалось matrosovsk 12.01.2013 21:56, всего редактировалось 1 раз.
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Alex 65 rus
Нарушитель правил конфы
Нарушитель правил конфы

Alex 65 rus

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Сообщение Alex 65 rus » 04.01.2013 03:20

matrosovsk писал(а):Вот если бы с переводом, цены бы тебе не было, честное слово!

Завтра же артель переводчиков бросит все, и начнет его делать, обещаю.
"игра представляла собой дефмач - интересно, оригинально и необычно... "(с) ;)
"Жы", "шы" - ваще не пешы.(с)
Я ни хрена не понимаю в вашем страйкболе. Но форум мне понравился - есть знатоки всего
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